That Poseidon emblem could be understood as a simple 1-color or 2-color linocut or woodcut style, mainly because of the sawtooth shading technique. The linked examples are less traditional and might simply be referred to as minimal flat 1-color or 2-color spot illustration. To locate some tutorials search the following phrase: "1 color linocut ...
The R&M scene is is intended to catch our attention and it succeeds. It depicts an imaginary world that is alive and full of interesting details.
By comparison, your desert scene looks dead. Nothing is happening. There's nothing especially interesting going on. Many of us can draw well and know numerous technical software tricks which can help, but if ...
If I were tasked with creating hand-drawn-looking diagrams, I'd use a library like Rough.js or roughVis.js to do so.
In your case this would require recreating the diagram using either tool but given your simple shapes it should be pretty straightforward.
For future readers, a similar hand drawn pencil look can be created using SVG filters. For more about ...
I'd call that a bar chart.
The SVG was made in Inkscape. It says so in the XML
<!-- Created with Inkscape (http://www.inkscape.org/) -->
And since it's already an Inkscape SVG, you can just open it and edit it in Inkscape, which is a free and Open Source vector image editor.
There are no specific, valid-for-anything, rules when designing, but in your particular case it feels like some more whitespace is needed (which you seem to be anticipating yourself). So try:
more space in between list entries (car, tree, etc)
more space above car, and identical value below soup
shift the entire list and header to the right, touching the ...
It sounds like you probably make the error of duplicating your style without having the new styling selected.
To create a new paragraph style from a paragraph style with overrides do like this:
Select a paragraph which has the overrides you want to turn into a new paragraph style (or just place the cursor within the paragraph).
In the Paragraph Styles panel,...
This is a complex topic, and it might not have an answer.
One thing is to separate the elements (black and white, grudge texture) but another thing is to put them in context.
Probably one root of this style is the initial credits on David Fincher's movie Se7en. And it is not one specific element, but the overall usage of different elements.
You can have a ...