My current understanding of how Inkscape can accomplish your objective is somewhat convoluted and could certainly be easier.
Using the measure tool, click on the locations to be measured. This places both an angle reference and a set of dimensions, depending on the complexity of the path you've selected.
The tool bar has a small rule icon:
Even though I had snap turned on, I didn't put too much effort into aligning the tool:
You can see there is a 0.10 degree slope to my tool reference points.
On the toolbar, find the "convert to item" icon and engage:
Once converted, you can edit it as any other complex path. Break apart the path, ungroup, delete specific references, move to another layer, etc.
Convoluted, but possible. Large quantities of this operation will be less than convenient.
Another option that presents itself, based on the comment by the OP might be Solvespace. It is a 3D modeling program, multi-platform, that will, of course, allow one to create 2D images, which can be exported to DXF and SVG format. It is a parametric program and is relatively easy to use. The tutorials that are available through the above link facilitate the learning process.
It does not support layers as in the original request, but does allow for changes to parameters to be reflected in the dimensions.
It's yet one more step in a process of creating a drawing, but far fewer steps than my first suggestion.