I'm not a graphic designer by trade, and my design work has been limited to posters and flyers for social activism, as well as scientific on-screen presentations and a couple of conference posters.
One of the issues I always struggle with is the choice of font families (individual or in combination) for those kinds of materials. I have a relatively large (in my opinion) set of font files on my PC - over 4,000 of them; and even if they're only, say, 1,000 families - that's still a huge number. I know very well that a lot of them are weird joke fonts, a lot are really variants of each other which are not represented as such for whatever technical/historical reasons; a lot are Hebrew and a few are Arabic rather than Latin or multi-script (my native language is Hebrew) - but that still leaves something like 300-500 font families. And what that means is that I do endless scrolling and estimating which font seems to look the part - where most options are entirely irrelevant.
Now, I've noticed that people who are well-versed with type design don't "go over a list" in their heads - they tell you things like "Oh, if I want a very legible sans-serif than take Frutiger; or Open Sans if you need it to be free." Or "Oh, this looks like Trade Gothic Bold Extended" (i.e. they can "reverse-lookup" an appearance to a font family name).
I know I'm not going to be a typography expert, but how can I build up a sort of a structured or categorized knowledge of the 'sea' of font families - available to me or generally noteworthy ones? I mean, other than simply Google and reading some article for every one of the families I have installed, and hoping that it sticks?