I am designing a program for a play that is set in the early twentieth century (circa 1911) Austria and it focuses on the upper class. What are some historically relevant fonts and design elements that such a program can include?
One might be tempted to call this "art nouveau" but if you are looking for authentic, you really need to look at Vienna 1910. This is too late to be
secessionist and too early to be
bauhaus but either one would work in a pinch. Vienna art was cutting edge at the time, and their design aesthetic was different than France and especially different than England and the US at the time.
See especially the title page(s) and inside cover papers:
As far as typefaces: maybe check out the people involved in the
Steglitzer Werkstatt and
Leipzig Academy of Graphic Design and Book Arts such as Belwe.